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As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, or RTF document file format.
  • Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  • The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.
  • Article Processing Charge: $399

    The Dougmar Publishing Group (DPG), like other Open Access publishers, charges Article Processing Charges (APC) to individual authors and institutions to offset expenses usually covered by the subscriptions and advertisements of subscription-based journals. APC's are per article and billed upon acceptance of an article, after the article has successfully passed peer review. There are no additional charges based on color, length, figures, or other elements. Letters to the Editor and small commentaries (up to 250 words), and select invited articles are not charged an APC. An author’s ability to pay APCs is not a consideration in the decision of whether to publish. Authors living in one of the United Nations' list of Least Developed Countries may request a fee waiver. See country list here (http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/cdp/cdp_ldcs_countryfacts.shtml). Authors living in countries not considered "least developed" who do not have the ability to pay the APC's may be eligible for a reduced rate.

    Please contact the publisher directly at jbirkby@dougmargroup.com.

    Beginning January 1, 2019 the article processing charge will be US $399 . Letters to the Editor, short commentaries, and select invited articles are not charged an APC. All articles are archived through Portico and assigned a unique DOI (Digital Object Identifier). We also provide a PDF of each article published, found on the journal's homepage.

The Journal of Dry Eye Disease Instructions to Authors

Original Research

The word count includes the body of manuscript, references, notes and captions. The word count excludes the abbreviation list and acknowledgements. Authors cannot exceed this limit without prior approval of the Editor-in-Chief. All manuscripts must be double-spaced with full-text line and page numbering. Manuscripts submitted to the journal must be original, have not been previously published and will be verified for plagiarism.

Research articles report results of an original research project, based on clinical findings, examination technique development, improving strategies and/or training in the health profession.

Organization of manuscript sections

The following information must appear:

Author’s names and affiliations: highest level of contribution to the paper appearing as first author. Present author’s affiliation addresses below the names and indicate each affiliation with a superscript number immediately after the author’s name.

Title Page
Corresponding author: provide postal mailing address, phone/fax and email address of the author responsible to handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and pre- or post-publication.

Word Count
The number of words should be indicated.
Word Limits Abstract: 500
Total: 4,500

Grant Support
The must be a declaration of any financial support for the research, listing company or organization name and the author’s affiliation.

The abstract is a summary limited to 500 words and should state the investigation the following four subheadings:

Background and Objective: Brief statement of the background and purpose for the investigation.

Material and Methods: Describe the methodology applied in the investigation.

Results: State the principal results of the investigation.
Conclusion: Brief statement fulfilling the hypothesis.

Key Words: A maximum of 5 keywords chosen from the Medical Subject Headings of the Index Medicus.

No references are cited in this section.

Brief introduction to the manuscript, outlining the background and objectives in further detail. Detailed literature review, results should be avoided in this section.

Provides detailed information on the research methodology in a written form that allows the work to be reproduced. This section may be divided into subsections and include research design, patient population/recruitment, materials, sampling, diagnostic methodology and analysis, and statistical analysis.  Authors are recommended to consult with an individual with statistical expertise for analysis. Reporting results and/or discussion is inadmissible in this section.

For investigations involving human subjects, declaration that informed consent approval was obtained as well as statement of institutional or university ethical review board approval should be indicated in a separate paragraph. This statement should include whether or not the research conforms to the outlined principles in the Declaration of Helsinki.  

If applicable, details of all funding sources including full agency name(s) and grant numbers should be included as a separate subsection.

May be divided into subsections to clearly present the statistical findings supporting the results. The main body of the text in this section mainly encompasses numerical data.
Site tables, figures and/or graphs to illustrate the findings.  

Should explore the significance and impact of the results in relation to the research question and hypothesis. Begin with a limited background information section followed by a discussion of the investigation’s results, limitations and future implications and outcomes that correspond to previously published research or how it may develop into future research. Site tables, figures and/or graphs where appropriate.  

Should present the hypothesis and summarize the conclusive findings of the research.  

Provides a statement recognizing individuals, aside from the authors, that have contributed to the scientific work being reported. Non-research contributions are not suitable.

Provide the original references that provided essential data for the investigation.  

General Instructions:

References should be numbered consecutively in the text by superscript numerals. Corresponding references should be listed at the end of the text. Unpublished sources such as personal communications should be cited within the text and not included in the reference list.
The Journal of Contact Lens Science and Research uses a slightly modified version of the Vancouver style for references. When there are more than 4 authors, shorten to 3 and add “et al.” Journal titles should be abbreviated as in PubMed.

Journal article:
Abate M, Salini V, Rimondi E, et al. Post-traumatic myositis ossificans: sonographic findings. J Clin Ultrasound 2011;39(3):135–40.
Book: Cardenosa G. Breast Imaging Companion, 3rd edition. Philadelphia (PA): Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2007.

Chapter in a book: Galloway AC, Colvin SB, Grossi EA, et al. Acquired heart disease. In: Schwartz SI, Shires GT, Spencer FC, eds. Principles of Surgery, 6th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1994:845–99.
Web page: Breast Cancer Society of Canada. Breast cancer statistics. Sarnia (ON): The Society, 2012; http://www.bcsc.ca/p/46/l/105/t. Accessed November 13, 2012.

Authors are encouraged to apply commonly abbreviated words within the text, figures and/or tables. All abbreviations should be spelled out at the first mention in the text and abbreviations should be listed in a key.

Plagiarism is defined as the presentation of work of another in such a way as to give the reader reason to think it is the author’s own work. Plagiarism is a form of academic fraud and is considered a serious academic offense. Any paper submitted to the JDED will be checked for originality to confirm that it has not been plagiarized from other sources.
Self-plagiarism: refers to the practice of an author using portions of their previous writings on the same topic in another of their publications, without specifically citing it formally in quotes. Authors are required to disclose information and cite references about reused content from previously published work.

Incorrect authorship: Excluding authors, wrongly presenting the same material as original in more than one publication, inclusion of authors who have not made a definite contribution to the work published; or submission of articles without the concurrence of all authors.

Misappropriation of the ideas of others: an important aspect of scholarly activity is the exchange of ideas among colleagues. Scholars can acquire novel ideas from others during the process of reviewing grant applications and manuscripts. However, improper use of such information can constitute fraud. Wholesale appropriation of such material constitutes misconduct.
Digital image editing ethics          

No particular feature within an image may be introduced, moved, enhanced, obscured, or removed. Adjustments of brightness, contrast, or color balance are allowed if they are applied to the whole image and do not obscure or eliminate any information present in the original image. Adjustments such as changes to settings must be disclosed in the figure legend.

Also, the author(s) must ensure that all possible patient identifying markers on any images is removed before submission to the journal.

Written permission must be obtained for material that has been published in copyrighted material; this includes tables, figures, and quoted text that exceeds 150 words. A copy of all permissions must accompany the manuscript. Ownership of submitted manuscripts must be clearly stated. Authors must clearly indicate that approval for publication has been received in cases of institutional ownership. All submitted material remains the property of the journal and will be returned to the author; however, the publisher and the JDED reserve the right to reprint all or portions of the article and to post all or part of the article online. JDED reserves the right to edit manuscripts as required to publish in the journal.

Tables and illustrations
Each table should be typed on a separate page and should have a legend at the top indicating the information contained and should supplement the text. Each table should be clearly labeled with the title and figure number.  Illustrations may be sent via e-mail as a TIFF or JPEG file. Do not embed the images in the text/Word document. Please use the maximum resolution on your PACS system (usually 640-480). If any photographs are to be submitted, please use the maximum resolution of the camera (3.2 megapixel minimum). Please do not crop the photos as you lose resolution; instead, zoom in to get the maximum image in the frame for the photograph. Illustrations should clarify and complement the text. Each illustration should be clearly labeled with the title, figure number, and indication as of the correct position of viewing of the image. Labels or arrows may be used to point out areas of interest and should be detailed in the legend. Patient identification MUST be removed. Video/DVD presentations are also accepted.

Note: Figure reproduction cannot improve on the quality of the originals

Author Responsibility
The journal accepts only original work that has not been published elsewhere. All authors must confirm that neither the manuscript nor any part of it was written or published or is under consideration for publication elsewhere. Publication of the content as an abstract during the proceedings of meetings is not considered prior publication and can be submitted for publication.

Authorship Credit
Should be based on the contributions to any of the three components mentioned below:

  • Concept and design of study, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data
  • Drafting the article or revising it critically for intellectual content;
  • Final approval of the version to be published.

Conflicts of Interest/ Competing Interests
All authors of must disclose any and all conflicts of interest they may have with the publication of the manuscript or any institution or product that is mentioned in the manuscript and/or is important to the outcome of the study presented.

Human Subjects and Informed Consent

All research involving human subjects must include a statement of assurance from the authors that the research conformed with the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki, that prior informed consent was obtained from the subjects, and where applicable, that the research was reviewed and approved by the appropriate institutional review board (IRB). Case reports (1 patient) and case series reporting 3 or fewer patients do not require institutional review board approval. Submissions describing more than three patients, or that required a systematic retrospective chart review to identify patients must be reviewed by a research ethics panel, i.e. institutional review board. These statements must appear in the first paragraph of the Methods section of the manuscript.

Authors must ensure confidentiality for any patient information. Subject anonymity should be carefully protected and following all the guidelines for experimental investigation with human subjects required by the institution(s) with which all the authors are affiliated. Authors should mask any identifying features and remove participant names from images submitted for publication unless written consent permitting their use is provided along with their submission.

Author Checklist:

  • Does not exceed 4500 words (without consent from Editor-in-Chief)

Title Page:

  • Author(s) full name and credentials
  • Author(s) contact information
  • Author affiliation address
  • Word count
  • Grant support


  • Background and Objective briefly described
  • Materials and Methods briefly described
  • Results are briefly described
  • Keywords (maximum of 5) are identified
  • Under 500 words


  • The purpose is clearly stated
  • Background information on the research is provided
  • Definitions pertinent to the understanding of the article are provided
  • Support the merits of the case with a detailed literature review
  • Introduce the research to the reader

Subsections recommended (i.e. research design, patient population, recruitment, etc.)

  • Confirmation of statistical method/findings
  • No results or discussion in this section
  • Consent for human research discussed (if applicable)
  • Ethical review discussed


  • If applicable full disclosure of funding sources


  • Tables/data clearly labelled and presented
  • Confirmation of statistical method/findings


  • Justify the uniqueness of the research
  • Compare and contrast the research to the known literature
  • Discuss background information
  • Discuss results
  • Discuss limitations
  • Discuss future implications/research
  • Discuss the impact on the ultrasound/medical field
  • Tables, figures and/or graphs are well labelled


  • Relate to objectives identified in the introduction
  • Summarize the findings and the application to the practice of contact lens science and research
  • Less than 1 paragraph


  • Research related contributors are acknowledged